The concept that we must abandon is the distinction betweenso called soft drugs and heavy drugs/, that distinction does not correspond towhat is found in the scientific evidence and thoughts and behaviors ofconsumers of such drugs.
Should not be ignored in particular a simple as dramatic epidemiological observation that cannabis is the drug that for more than 95% ofheroin addicts is responsible for the initiation of many young people to drugs..
Of course the passage is not automatic for allindividuals, but from the latest scientific research we are able to determinethat there are many particularly vulnerable individuals able to transform into"escalator" (climbers towards increasingly powerful drugs) in a fewmonths since the beginning of the called drugs intakes "easy".
"Easy" also for high social tolerance whichexists and particularly for the fascination factor, especially for the younger generations (but not only) regardless of superficial ideological considerations, this subject is not refraining at any moralistic positions that do not belong to our research.
We noted that the cannabis market today is very differentfrom that of 10 years ago. It is cultivated with methods that allow to obtainfinal products 4/5 times higher in terms of concentration of the activeingredient than before, creating effects far more relevant than you mightsuspect, besides the fact that often to grow crops more luxuriant (andprofitable) use pesticides harmful to health as carcinogenic and outlawed,which are then marketed drugs even more concentrated and highly dangerous.
Contrary to a commonly and erroneously believed this substance is able to create a State of dependence which manifests itself mainly with psychic symptoms such as a strong and constant desire to take the substance, demotivational crisis, strong increase aggressivenessand irritability, and disorders in the judgment.
The existence of dependencyhas been proven through the use of specific antagonists of THC (the activeingredient of cannabis) and high affinity for the cannabinoid receptors,endogenous and exogenous (administered under experimental conditions inanimals) have caused an acute syndrome of abstinence,demonstrating the existence of a State of dependency.
Now we know that in the human brain there is also acomplex system of brain cannabinoid substancescalled "natural cannabinoid " (substances cannabis-like) the endocannabinoids (produced naturally in the body by humans and animals) that isa constituent to experience the satisfaction and feel "fulfilled".Some human brain areas have many cannabinoid receptors.
The highest density ofcannabinoid receptors are found in parts of the brain that influence pleasure,memory, thinking, concentrating, sensory and time perception, and coordinatedmovement.
Cannabis introduced from outside interferes deeply andnegatively with this system (like heroine that interferes with the normal endorphin system) because no longer uses its internal components and natural (endogenouscannabinoids) but only the external ones, altering the physiological functioning.
It thus produces a biochemical dysfunction that leads tothe downfall of the motivation, retention mechanisms alteration and impairmentof ability to address the problems of life.
This endogenous cannabinoid systemhas also a very delicate and complex and sophisticated level details brain structures (limbic frontal cortex and hippocampus), which control memory,personality and relationship with people.
To understand the harm of cannabis, try to think for amoment what it means and what can cause this in the brain of a teenager ingrowth that is developing its own very sensitive psychic functioning mechanisms.
Cannabis reduces the sensitivity and the euphoria for the results achieved: after reaching an objective the enthusiasm is reduced (or completely absent) remainonly dissatisfied, and anxiety, like if not achieved anything. A delay in adolescent brain development is common when drugs usage begins at a young age.
Basically, the teenage brain stops developing. “Some frequent users feel a lackof initiative and concern about the future, find it hard to become or stay motivated, and think things will take care of themselves.” (Wapner, Roger,1995)
As a result, the normal maturation process is interrupted. Development ofcoping skills, a code of ethics, acceptance of responsibility, and other signs of maturity frequently cease or regress. As a result, many milestones of life maybe missed.
All this for a guy growing and searching for his identitycan be psychologically devastating and lose the right direction for a harmonious mental development and mental progress, causing stress and all we know the deleterious effects of stress on physical and mental health have been consistently documented (Brown, 1993; Dohrenwend,1998;Kessler,1997).A well-developed literature has identified the negative physiological effectsof stress, particularly dysregulation in the neuro endocrine and immune systems, that represent biological mechanisms linking stress to disease
By the time it was known that cannabis increases the lossof cerebral neurons deputies to short-term memory and focus on essentialconcepts. From a standpoint of physical health has also been tried cannabis inhibits immune cells appointed to defense from infections and cancers. Users of cannabis are more exposed to develop pulmonary infections, cancer and myocardial infarction.
The effects on memory and on nerve motivation cells arestrong and can over time change the personality and psychic functioningmechanisms of people who are exposing them to an increased risk of schizophrenia, depression and anxiety.
Finally have been documented severeneuro developmental damage of children born to mothers who smoke cannabis.
We also highlighted and raised the alarm on thesignificant increase of the early appearance of psychiatric disorders and psychopathology in youth bands that is occurring unexpectedly in these years.All this highlights the close relation to the greater diffusion and use of drugs at a young age.
For years these evidences are aware of scientific community (but also political) around the world and even now these truths must be accepted by the multitude of young people who too often fall into easy and superficial risk behavior for the unclear information.
The hoax that has been done and continues to be wide spread, it cannot be accepted by those involved with public health, is time for all those persons who think that use drugs is one inviolable right and must to be guarantee even with the laws ofthe State. (maintainour health and health of others, might be considered a "duty" and a responsibility for all of us).
We must take a more active and determined attitude by making explicit and sending the right information’s to the younger generation sand to all those who might be victims of drugs.
The first instance therefore is to recognize the existence of damage of cannabis and send the information to the knowledge of young people to create awareness and empowerment this must be against all substances (not necessarily drugs) potentially suspected of being harmful to health and/or compromising civil behavior.
Young people and adolescents are particularly vulnerableto the adverse effects of cannabis and must be therefore protected.
We must recognize that taking drugs is injurious to health, dangerous even for the group ( family, school, friend etc…who are in contact with these people, (example is the consequences of driving skills and judgment of the danger).
The best prevention is not use drugs of any kind (both legal and illegal), and recognizing these behaviors as negative, to avoid and blame the system that places the individual more vulnerable to being protectedand simultaneously stimulated to an awareness and awareness for mature and responsible behaviors’ to uncertain themselves and be really "free"of any substance and ideological conditioning.
Marijuanais the most commonly used illegal drug. It is made up of dried parts of the Cannabis sativa hemp plant.
What is marijuana?
Marijuana—often called pot,grass, reefer, weed, herb, Mary Jane, or MJ—is a greenish-graymixture of the dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of Cannabissativa—the hemp plant.
Most users smoke marijuana in hand-rolled cigarettescalled joints, among other names; some use pipes or water pipes called bongs
.Marijuana cigars, or blunts, are also popular. To make blunts, usersslice open cigars, remove some of the tobacco, and mix the remainder withmarijuana (Timberlake 2009). Marijuana also is used to brew tea and sometimes is mixed into foods.
How does marijuana produce its effects?
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)is the main active ingredient in marijuana, responsible for many of its knowneffects. When marijuana is smoked, its effects begin almost immediately. THCrapidly passes from the lungs into the bloodstream, which carries the chemicalto organs throughout the body, including the brain. The effects of smokedmarijuana can last from 1 to 3 hours. If marijuana is consumed in foods orbeverages, the effects appear later—usually in 30 minutes to 1 hour—but canlast up to 4 hours. Smoking marijuana delivers significantly more THC into thebloodstream than eating or drinking the drug.
Chart describing marijuana's effectson the brain
Scientists have learned a great dealabout how THC acts in the brain. THC binds to specific sites called cannabinoidreceptors (CBRs) located on the surface of nerve cells. These receptors arefound in high-density in areas of the brain that influence pleasure, memory,thinking, concentration, movement, coordination, and sensory and timeperception. CBRs are part of a vast communication network known as the endocannabinoidsystem, which plays a critical role in normal brain development and function.In fact, THC effects are similar to those produced by naturally occurringchemicals found in the brain (and body) called endogenous cannabinoids.These chemicals help control many of the same mental and physical functionsthat may be disrupted by marijuana use.
When someone smokes marijuana, THC stimulates the CBRs artificially, disrupting function of the natural, orendogenous, cannabinoids.
An overstimulation of these receptors in key brainareas produces the marijuana "high," as well as other effects onmental processes. Over time, this overstimulation can alter the function ofCBRs, which, along with other changes in the brain, can lead to addiction andto withdrawal symptoms when drug use stops.
The THC content or potency ofmarijuana, as detected in confiscated samples over the past 30+ years (PotencyMonitoring Project, University of Mississippi), has been steadily increasing.This increase raises concerns that the consequences of marijuana use could beworse than in the past, particularly among new users, or in young people, whosebrains are still developing.
We still do not know, however, whether cannabisusers adjust for the increase in potency by using less or by smoking itdifferently. We also do not know all the consequences to the brain and bodywhen exposed to higher concentrations of THC.
How does marijuana use affect your brain andbody?Effects on the BrainAsTHC enters the brain, it causes the user to feel euphoric—or high—by acting onthe brain's reward system, which is made up of regions that govern the responseto pleasurable things like sex and chocolate, as well as to most drugs ofabuse.
THC activates the reward system in the same way that nearly all drugs ofabuse do: by stimulating brain cells to release the chemical dopamine.
Alongwith euphoria, relaxation is another frequently reported effect in humanstudies. Other effects, which vary dramatically among different users, includeheightened sensory perception (e.g., brighter colors), laughter, alteredperception of time, and increased appetite.
After a while, the euphoriasubsides, and the user may feel sleepy or depressed. Occasionally, marijuanause may produce anxiety, fear, distrust, or panic.
Marijuanause impairs a person's ability to form new memories and to shift focus. THCalso disrupts coordination and balance by binding to receptors in thecerebellum and basal ganglia—parts of the brain that regulate balance, posture,coordination, and reaction time. Therefore, learning, doing complicated tasks,participating in athletics, and driving are also affected.
Marijuanausers who have taken large doses of the drug may experience an acute psychosis,which includes hallucinations, delusions, and a loss of the sense of personalidentity. Although the specific causes of these symptoms remain unknown, theyappear to occur more frequently when a high dose of cannabis is consumed infood or drink rather than smoked.
Such short-term psychotic reactions to highconcentrations of THC are distinct from longer-lasting, schizophrenia-likedisorders that have been associated with the use of cannabis in vulnerableindividuals.
Ourunderstanding of marijuana's long-term brain effects is limited. Researchfindings on how chronic cannabis use affects brain structure, for example, have beeninconsistent. It may be that the effects are too subtle for reliable detectionby current techniques.
A similar challenge arises in studies of the effects of chronic marijuana use on brain function.
Although imaging studies (functional MRI; fMRI) in chronic users do show some consistent alterations, the relation of these changes to cognitive functioning is less clear.
This uncertainty may stem from confounding factors such as other drug use, residual drug effects (which can occur for at least 24 hours inchronic users), or with drawal symptoms in long-term chronic users.
Marijuana, Memory, and the Hippocampus Memoryimpairment from marijuana use occurs because THC alters how information isprocessed in the hippocampus, a brain area responsible for memory formation.
Distribution of cannabinoid receptors in the rat brain. Brain image revealshigh levels (shown in orange and yellow) of cannabinoid receptors in manyareas, including the cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and nucleus accumbens(ventral striatum).
Mostof the evidence supporting this assertion comes from animal studies. For example, rats exposed to THC in utero, soon after birth, or during adolescence,show notable problems with specific learning/memory tasks later in life. Moreover, cognitive impairment in adult rats is associated with structural andfunctional changes in the hippocampus from THC exposure during adolescence.
Aspeople age, they lose neurons in the hippocampus, which decreases their abilityto learn new information. Chronic THC exposure may hasten age-related loss ofhippocampal neurons. In one study, rats exposed to THC every day for 8 months(approximately 30 percent of their life-span) showed a level of nerve cell loss(at 11 to 12 months of age) that equaled that of unexposed animals twice theirage.
Anenduring question in the field is whether individuals who quit marijuana, evenafter long-term, heavy use, can recover some of their cognitive abilities. One study reports that the ability of long-term heavy marijuana users to recallwords from a list was still impaired 1 week after they quit using, but returnedto normal by 4 weeks.
However, another study found that marijuana's effects onthe brain can build up and deteriorate critical life skills over time. Sucheffects may be worse in those with other mental disorders, or simply by virtueof the normal aging process.
Effects on General Physical Health
Within a few minutes after inhaling marijuana smoke, an individual's heart ratespeeds up, the bronchial passages relax and become enlarged, and blood vesselsin the eyes expand, making the eyes look red.
The heart rate—normally 70 to 80beats per minute—may increase by 20 to 50 beats per minute, or may even doublein some cases. Taking other drugs with marijuana can amplify this effect.
Limited evidence suggests that a person's risk of heart attack during the first hourafter smoking marijuana is four times his or her usual risk. This observation could be partly explained by marijuana raising blood pressure (in some cases)and heart rate and reducing the blood's capacity to carry oxygen.
Such possibilities need to be examined more closely, particularly since current marijuana users include adults from the baby boomer generation, who may haveother cardiovascular risks that may increase their vulnerability.
Consequencesof Marijuana Abuse Acute (present during intoxication) Impairs short-term memory Impairs attention, judgment, and other cognitive functionsImpairs coordination and balanceIncreases heart ratePsychotic episodes Persistent (lasting longer than intoxication, but may not bepermanent)Impairs memory and learning skills Sleep impairmen tLong-term (cumulative effects of chronic abuse)
Can lead to addiction Increases risk of chronic cough, bronchitis Increases risk of schizophrenia in vulnerable individualsMay increase risk of anxiety, depression, and amotivational syndrome1
The smoke of marijuana, like that of tobacco, consists of a toxic mixture of gasesand particulates, many of which are known to be harmful to the lungs.
Someone who smokes marijuana regularly may have many of the same respiratory problems that tobacco smokers do, such as daily cough and phlegm production, more frequent acute chest illnesses, and a greater risk of lung infections.
Even in frequent marijuana use can cause burning and stinging of the mouth andthroat, often accompanied by a heavy cough. One study found that extra sickdays used by frequent marijuana smokers were often because of respiratory illnesses (Polen et al. 1993).
Inaddition, marijuana has the potential to promote cancer of the lungs and other parts of the respiratory tract becauseit contains irritants and carcinogens—up to 70 percent more than tobacco smoke.It also induces high levels of an enzyme that converts certain hydrocarbonsinto their cancer-causing form, which could accelerate the changes thatultimately produce malignant cells.
And since marijuana smokers generallyinhale more deeply and hold their breath longer than tobacco smokers, the lungsare exposed longer to carcinogenic smoke.
However, while several lines ofevidence have suggested that marijuana use may lead to lung cancer, thesupporting evidence is inconclusive (Hashibe et al. 2006).
The presence of anunidentified active ingredient in cannabis smoke having protective properties—if corroborated and properly characterized—could help explain the inconsistenciesand modest findings.
Within a few minutes after inhaling marijuana smoke, an individual's heart ratespeeds up, the bronchial passages relax and become enlarged, and blood vesselsin the eyes expand, making the eyes look red.
Asignificant body of research demonstrates negative effects of THC on thefunction of various immune cells, both in vitro in cells and in vivo with testanimals. However, no studies to date connect marijuana's suspected immunesystem suppression with greater incidence of infections or immune disorders inhumans.
One short (3-week) study found marijuana smoking to be associated witha few statistically significant negative effects on the immune function of AIDS patients; a second small study of college students also suggested thepossibility of marijuana having adverse effects on immune system functioning.
Thus, the combined evidence from animal studies plus the limited human dataavailable, seem to warrant additional research on the impact of marijuana onthe immune system.
Is there a link between marijuana use and mental illness?
Research in the past decade hasfocused on whether marijuana use actually causes other mental illnesses. The strongest evidence to date suggests a link between cannabis use and psychosis(Hall and Degenhardt 2009).
For example, a series of large prospective studies that followed a group of people over time showed a relationship between marijuana use and later development of psychosis. Marijuana use also worsensthe course of illness in patients with schizophrenia and can produce a brief psychotic reaction in some users that fades as the drug wears off.
The amount of drug used, the age at first use, and genetic vulnerability can all influence this relationship.
One example is a study that found an increased risk ofpsychosis among adults who had used marijuana in adolescence and whoalso carried a specific variant of the gene for catechol-O-methyltransferase(COMT) (Caspi et al. 2005), an enzyme that degrades neurotransmitters such asdopamine and norepinephrine.
In addition to the observed links between marijuana use and schizophrenia, other less consistent associationshave been reported between marijuana use and depression, anxiety, suicidalthoughts among adolescents, and personality disturbances.
One of the most frequently cited, albeit still controversial, is an amotivational syndrome,defined as a diminished or absent drive to engage in typically rewarding activities.
Because of the role of the endocannabinoid system in regulating mood, these associations make a certain amount of sense; however, more researchis needed to confirm and better understand these linkages.
Adapted from Caspi et al., Biol Psychiatry, May 2005.
The influence of adolescent marijuana use on adult psychosis is affected bygenetic variables. This figure shows that variations in a gene can affect thelikelihood of developing psychosis in adulthood, following exposure to cannabisin adolescence.
The COMT gene governs an enzyme that breaks down dopamine, abrain chemical involved in schizophrenia. It comes in two forms:"Met" and "Val." Individuals with one or two copies of theVal variant have a higher risk of developing schizophrenic-type disorders ifthey used cannabis during adolescence (dark bars). Those with only the Metvariant were unaffected by cannabis use.
Is marijuana addictive?
Long-termmarijuana use can lead to addiction; that is, people have difficulty controlling their drug use and cannot stop even though it interferes with manyaspects of their lives. It is estimated that 9 percent of people who usemarijuana will become dependent on it.
The number goes up to about 1 in 6 inthose who start using young (in their teens) and to 25-50 percent among dailyusers.
Moreover, a study of over 300 fraternal and identical twin pairs found that the twin who had used marijuana before the age of 17 had elevated rates ofother drug use and drug problems later on, compared with their twin who did notuse before age 17.
Marijuana addiction is also linked to a with drawal syndrome similar to that of nicotine withdrawal, which can make it hard toquit.
People trying to quit report irritability, sleeping difficulties,craving, and anxiety. They also show increased aggression on psychological tests, peaking approximately 1 week after they last used the drug.
How does marijuana use affect school, work, and sociallife?
Research has shown that marijuana's negative effects on attention, memory, and learning can last for days or weeksafter the acute effects of the drug wear off (Schweinsburg et al. 2000.
Consequently, someone who smokes marijuana daily may be functioning at areduced intellectual level most or all of the time.
Not surprisingly, evidencesuggests that, compared with their nonsmoking peers, students who smokemarijuana tend to get lower grades and are more likely to drop out of highschool (Fergusson and Boden 2000.
A meta-analysis of 48 relevant studies—oneof the most thorough performed to date—found cannabis use to be associatedconsistently with reduced educational attainment (e.g., grades and chances ofgraduating) (Macleod et al. 2004).
However, a causal relationship is notyet proven between cannabis use by young people and psychosocial harm.
That said, marijuana usersthemselves report poor outcomes on a variety of life satisfaction andachievement measures. One study compared current and former long-term heavyusers of marijuana with a control group who reported smoking cannabis at leastonce in their lives but not more than 50 times.
Despite similar education and income backgrounds, significant differences were found in educational attainment: fewer of the heavy users of cannabis completed college, and morehad yearly household incomes of less than $30,000.
When asked how marijuana affected their cognitive abilities, career achievements, social lives, and physical and mental health, the majority of heavy cannabis users reported the drug's negative effects on all of these measures.
In addition, several studies have linked workers' marijuana smoking with increased absences, tardiness,accidents, workers' compensation claims, and job turnover.
For example, a studyamong postal workers found that employees who tested positive for marijuana ona pre-employment urine drug test had 55 percent more industrial accidents, 85percent more injuries, and a 75-percent increase in absenteeism compared withthose who tested negative for marijuana use.
Does marijuana use affect driving?
Because marijuana impairs judgmentand motor coordination and slows reaction time, an intoxicated person has anincreased chance of being involved in and being responsible for an accident(O'Malley and Johnston 2007; Richer and Bergeron 2009).
According to theNational Highway Traffic Safety Administration, drugs other than alcohol (e.g.,marijuana and cocaine) are involved in about 18 percent of motor vehicle driverdeaths.
A recent survey found that 6.8 percent of drivers, mostly under 35, whowere involved in accidents tested positive for THC; alcohol levels above the legal limit were found in 21 percent of such drivers.
Can marijuana use during pregnancy harm the baby?
Animal research suggests that the body's endocannabinoid system plays a role in the control of brain maturation, particularly in the development of emotional responses.
It is conceivable that even low concentrations of THC, whenadministered during the perinatal period, could have profound and long-lastingconsequences for both brain and behavior (Trezza et al. 2000.
Research hasshown that some babies born to women who used marijuana during theirpregnancies display altered responses to visual stimuli, increasedtremulousness, and a high-pitched cry, which could indicate problems withneurological development.
In school, marijuana-exposed children are more likelyto show gaps in problem solving skills, memory, and the ability to remainattentive. More research is needed, however, to disentangle the drug-specificfactors from the environmental ones (Schempf and Strobino 2008).
Available treatments for marijuana usedisordersMarijuanadependence appears to be very similar to other substance dependence disorders,although the long-term clinical outcomes may be less severe.
On average, adultsseeking treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence have used marijuana nearlyevery day for more than 10 years and have attempted to quit more than sixtimes.
It is important to note that marijuana dependence is most prevalentamong patients suffering from other psychiatric disorders, particularly amongadolescent and young adult populations (Gouzoulis-Mayfrank 2000.
Also,marijuana abuse or dependence typically co-occurs with use of other drugs, suchas cocaine and alcohol.
Available studies indicate that effectively treatingthe mental health disorder with standard treatments involving medications andbehavioral therapies may help reduce cannabis use, particularly among heavyusers and those with more chronic mental disorders. Behavioral treatments, suchas motivational enhancement therapy (MET), group or individualcognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and contingency management (CM), as well asfamily-based treatments, have shown promise.
Unfortunately,the success rates of treatment are rather modest. Even with the most effectivetreatment for adults, only about 50 percent of enrollees achieve an initial2-week period of abstinence, and among those who do, approximately half willresume use within a year. Across studies, 1-year abstinence rates have rangedbetween 10 and 30 percent for the various behavioral approaches.
As with otheraddictions, these data suggest that a chronic care model should be consideredfor marijuana addiction, with treatment intensity stepped up or down based onneed, comorbid addictions or other mental disorders, and the availability offamily and other supports.
Currently,no medications are available to treat marijuana abuse, but research is activein this area. Most of the studies to date have targeted the marijuanawithdrawal syndrome.
For example, a recent human laboratory study showed that acombination of a cannabinoid agonist medication with lofexidine (a medication approved in the United Kingdom for the treatment of opioid withdrawal) produced more robust improvements in sleep and decreased marijuana withdrawal, craving,and relapse in daily marijuana smokers relative to either medication alone.
Recent discoveries about the inner workings of the endogenous cannabinoidsystem raise the future possibility of a medication able to block THC'sintoxicating effects, which could help prevent relapse by reducing oreliminating marijuana's appeal.
The Science of Medical Marijuana
The potential medicinal properties of marijuana have been the subject of substantive research and heated debate. Scientists have confirmed that the cannabis plant contains active ingredients with therapeutic potential for relieving pain, controlling nausea, stimulating appetite, and decreasing ocularpressure. As a result, a 1990 Institute of Medicine report concluded thatfurther clinical research on cannabinoid drugs and safe delivery systems waswarranted.
Atthat time, dronabinol (Marinol® and nabilone (Cesamet® were the onlyFDA-approved, marijuana-based medications that doctors could prescribe for thetreatment of nausea in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy and to stimulateappetite in patients with wasting syndrome due to AIDS.
These pills containedsynthetic versions of THC, the main active ingredient in marijuana. Today, 25years after their approval, the development of Sativex® marks the arrival ofthe second generation of cannabis-based medications.
This new product(currently available in the United Kingdom and Canada) is a chemically pure mixture of plant-derived THC and Cannabidiol, formulated as a mouth spray and approved for the relief of cancer-associated pain and spasticity andneuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis.
Scientistscontinue to investigate the medicinal properties of THC and other cannabinoidsto better evaluate and harness their ability to help patients suffering from abroad range of conditions, while avoiding the adverse effects of smokedmarijuana.
These efforts are bound to improve our understanding of thecannabinoid system and help us bring to market a new generation of safe andeffective medications.
Clinical studies focused on conditions identified by many researcher for which cannabis have therapeutic effects, I am notopposed to usingcannabis as a therapy, actually I thinkit is very useful for many diseases, but in order to evaluate various hypotheses concerning the potential utility of marijuana in various therapeutic areas, more and betterstudies would be needed because all psychotropic substance that induce dependency must be use carefully.
I know there are many records: books, articles, ancientherbals, researches and scientific publications, volunteer experiences, etc..
My pointof view as a researcher in Quantum Medicine is that,
I realized that all matter is just energy and everything has its ownvibration, mind, body, spirit, food and especially herbs and all naturalmedicine, even cannabis as a medical herb has a high vibration and may curemany diseases but like all medical herb use in medicine must be taken under control.
Everything testifiesin cannabis’s favor, in the treatment of disorders ranging from musculoskeletal pain, glaucoma, from anorexia and depression to diseases such as epilepsy and multiple sclerosis tremendous, notto mention the valuable help in relieving the side effects of chemotherapy incancer, such as nausea and vomiting, and debilitating in the state of the Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and even recent studies have demonstrated that cannabis has analgesic effects in pain conditions secondary to injury(e.g. spinal cord injury) or disease (e.g. HIV disease, HIV drug therapy) ofthe nervous system ...
This suggests that cannabis may provide a treatment option for those individuals who do not respond or respond inadequately to currently available therapies. The efficacy of cannabis in treatment-refractory patients also may suggest a novel mechanism of action not fully exploited by current therapies.
In addition tonerve pain, CMCR has also supported a study on muscle spasticity in MultipleSclerosis (MS).
Such spasticity can be painful and disabling, and some patientsdo not benefit optimally from existing treatments. itis also is right to point that there isnot only THC, this is undoubtedlythe most famous and the most presentin the plant, but there are over 60cannabinoids different from each other.
At present not much is known about the properties ofthese cannabinoids except that they seem to be devoid of psychoactive effects and / or psychotropic drugs on the brain. So the hypothesis that also positively influence the therapeutic effects of cannabison human behavior without interferingis not to be discarded.
The health benefits of Medical Marijuana include the placebo effect, is a phenomenon where a patient’s belief in the treatment or medicine will change his/her condition. When the patient’s condition improves,we can then say that the treatment or medicine had a therapeutic effect.
(direttore Dipartimento dipendenze Ulss 20 )
Universityof California's Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research (CMCR).
(medical cannabis - clinical studies)